Risk Factors for Hospitalization and Mortality due to COVID-19 in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

Crédito da imagem: PIRO4D do Pixabay


Brazil is, at the time of writing, the global epicenter of COVID-19, but information on risk factors for hospitalization and mortality in the country is still limited. Demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients until June 11th, 2020 were retrieved from the State Health Secretariat of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Potential risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death were analyzed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 10,713 COVID-19 patients were included in this study; 81.0% were younger than 60 years, 55.2% were female, 89.2% were not hospitalized, 32.9% had at least one comorbidity, and 7.7% died. The most common symptoms on admission were cough (67.7%) and fever (62.6%); 7.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. Cardiovascular diseases (23.7%) and diabetes (10.3%) were the two most common chronic diseases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified an association of all explanatory variables, except for cough and diarrhea, with hospitalization. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 3.95, P < 0.001) and shortness of breath (OR = 3.55, P < 0.001) were associated with increase of odds to COVID-19 death in hospitalized patients. Our study provided evidence that older age, male gender, Asian, indigenous or unknown race, comorbidities (smoking, kidney disease, obesity, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), as well as fever and shortness of breath increased the risk of hospitalization. For death outcome in hospitalized patients, only older age and shortness of breath increased the risk.

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(3)
Letícia Raposo
Letícia Raposo
Professora Adjunta

Biomédica e matemática de formação, atualmente é professora de Estatística da UNIRIO. Ama programar nas horas vagas acompanhada de um bom café. ☕